us8932550b2 - methods for pulling a multicrystalline

Methods and apparatuses for manufacturing

Methods and apparatuses are provided for casting silicon for photovoltaic cells and other applications. With such methods and apparatuses, a cast body of monocrystalline silicon may be formed that is free of, or substantially free of, radially-distributed impurities and defects and having at least two dimensions that are each at least about 35 cm is provided.

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technologies, today's market is based on silicon ingot growth (Cz ingots, multicrystalline silicon ingots grown by SOPLIN [5], electromagnetic casting (EMC) [6], Bridgman– Stockbarger, and similar methods). A major drawback of silicon ingot casting and wafer

Crystals

In the growth process of some conventional methods, it affects the formation of micro-defects in the growing crystal in a complex manner []. In the CCZ process, to prevent the unmelted silicon feedstock from transferring to the melt-crystal (m-c) interface, an inner quartz crucible is usually placed on the bottom of the outer quartz crucible [ 23 ].

Solidification of Silicon for Solar Cells

Silicon is the dominating material in solar cells. Monocrystalline and multicrystalline cells have approximately equal market shares and are produced from wafers, cut from single crystals produced by Czochralski (CZ) pulling or from polycrystalline ingots made by directional solidification, respectively. The present paper reviews how demands for lower cost, better yield, higher efficiency and

Multicrystalline Wafer

Martin A. Green, in Solar Cells (Second Edition), 20133.1 Structure The structure of a standard crystalline screen-printed cell is shown in Figure 3.The normal cell-processing sequence would consist of [36] saw-damage removal from the starting wafer by etching; chemical texturing of the top surface; top-surface diffusion to about 40–60 ohms/square; etching to remove diffusion oxides and the

Wen Hui Ma

Abstract: This work investigates the removal of B in Si by the addition of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of silicon-aluminum melts. As Zr has a strong affinity for B and can form the thermodynamically stable compound of ZrB 2, the B content of lower-grade Si is expected to be effectively removed by adding a small amount of Zr to the Si-55 at% Al melt.

What To Expect In Crystal Growth

Alternate methods may find a chance Alternate approaches such as kerfless and ribbon technologies have been detected by the ITRPV's radar for the first time. These technologies are expect to make an entry in 2019 and considerable volumes will be produced by 2025, contributing 10% of global production.

Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+ 5

695 Polyx multicrystalline silicon solar cells processed by PF+5 unanalysed ionimplantation and rapid thermal annealingW. O. Adekoya, Li Jin Chai (*), M. Ajaka, J. C. Muller and P. SiffertCRN (IN2P3), Laboratoire PHASE (UA du CNRS n 292), 23, rue du Loess, 67037 Strasbourg Cedex, France

Growth of Crystalline Silicon for Solar Cells: Noncontact

At ΔT = 30 K, the ingot was grown while pulling it upward with a pulling rate of 0.4 mm/min. The ingot was circular because the side-face width was very short (4.8–5.1 cm) as shown in Fig. 9b . A fan-shaped face appeared in the 100 direction at the point shown by the red arrow; thus, the top surface of the ingot has circular corners in the 100 direction.

(PPT) Crystal growth

The Czochralski crystal pulling technique is invaluable for growing many large single crystals as a rod, to be cut into wafers and polished for various applications like silicon, germanium, lithium niobate• Utility of some single crystals made by Czochralski listed

Free Full

For the small pulling rates like 0.5 mm / min or 1.0 mm / min and the crystal radius of about 2 ″, this effect was small. In the melt, we additionally computed the advective heat transport. We took into account the forced convection induced by crucible and crystal rotation, as well as the Marangoni convection at the melt/gas interface and the buoyancy convection in the volume.

Erlangen—An Important Center of Crystal Growth and

This overall research strategy is shown in Figure 2.The profound study of the interrelations, which are sketched in this figure, resulted in the fields of research which will be discussed in the following sections in more detail: ‐ Fundamental aspects of heat and mass transfer in crystal growth configurations, especially convection phenomena in melts and their correlation to crystal non

Physics and Material Science of Semiconductor Nanostructures

Multicrystalline mc-Si 10cm Cast, Spheral, Sheet, ribbon Polycrystalline pc-Si 1 m – 1mm Evaporation, Other monitoring methods for MBE • The existence of ultra-high vacuum in the MBE chamber, enables the use of RHEED which cannot be used in

Energies

Compared with monocrystalline silicon ingot, such a growth characteristic for multicrystalline silicon leads to a higher probability of irregular degradation in multicrystalline silicon power plants. In summary, in terms of the outcome, we think the negative potential and stacking faults are necessary and sufficient conditions for PID occurrence [ 34, 38, 39, 40 ].

With Liquid Flow Control Or Manipulation During Growth

Search for With Liquid Flow Control Or Manipulation During Growth (e.g., Mixing, Replenishing, Magnetic Levitation, Stabilization, Convection Control, Baffle) Patents and Patent Applications (Class 117/30) Filed with the USPTO Abstract: An method for producing a silicon ingot includes melting polycrystalline silicon in a crucible enclosed in a vacuum chamber to form a melt, generating a cusped

Czochralski Silicon Crystal Growth for Photovoltaic

Due to the higher energy conversion efficiency of single crystalline silicon (sc-i), the Czochralski (Cz) pulling remains the key technology in photovoltaics. However, when compared with the multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) production by the directional solidification, the current Cz technology is still more costly, due to the lower throughput and more energy consumption.

Transition metals in photovoltaic

article{osti_920973, title = {Transition metals in photovoltaic-grade ingot-cast multicrystalline silicon: Assessing the role of impurities in silicon nitride crucible lining material}, author = {Buonassisi, Tonio and Istratov, Andrei A and Pickett, M D and Rakotoniaina, J P and Breitenstein, O and Marcus, Matthew A and Heald, Steve M and Weber, Eicke R}, abstractNote = {We assess the

Future Trends in Silicon PV Materials Technology

Multicrystalline casting, directional solidification, and electromagnetic casting, while playing a dominant role in the Si PV market during the late 1990's (53% of all ingot-based modules sold in 1998 were multicrystalline) will likely continue to give way

Future Trends in Silicon PV Materials Technology

Multicrystalline casting, directional solidification, and electromagnetic casting, while playing a dominant role in the Si PV market during the late 1990's (53% of all ingot-based modules sold in 1998 were multicrystalline) will likely continue to give way

2011 Lecture 10: Wafer Silicon

Multicrystalline silicon. Let's put it this way for now. We'll describe how multicrystalline silicon is made, but for now I'm going to say that multicrystalline silicon is a crystalline silicon variety that is comprised of many small grains. So if you look at a silicon wafer,

Purification of Multicrystalline Silicon by Cold Crucible

Abstract: In order to get solar grade silicon, large cold crucible has been used in an induction heat furnace. By controlling the relative location of the crucible and coils, directional solidification was realized. [6] B. Gao, X.J. Chen, S. Nakano, K. Kakimoto, Crystal growth of high purity multicrystalline silicon using a unidirectional solidification furnace for solar cells, Journal of

Silicon Growth Technologies for PV Applications

2016/10/10Crystalline silicon is the most used semiconductor material for solar cell applications accounting for more than 90% of the market share. Nowadays, multicrystalline and monocrystalline silicon are mainly produced from directional solidification and Czochralski method, respectively. Solar cells made of these two types of material have shown efficiencies below the theoretical limit due to the

Bioinspired Superhydrophobic Highly Transmissive Films

Inspired by the transparent hair layer on water plants Salvinia and Pistia, superhydrophobic flexible thin films, applicable as transparent coatings for optoelectronic devices, are introduced. Thin polymeric nanofur films are fabricated using a highly scalable hot pulling

Ribbon

There is a large difference in the limiting pulling rate v between type I and type II. For type I growth, (I) where L is latent heat of fusion, ρ m is density at the melting temperature, σ is the Stefan-Boltzmann constant, ε is emissivity, K m is the thermal conductivity at the melting temperature T m, W is the ribbon width, and t is the ribbon thickness (Ciszek, 1976).

With Liquid Flow Control Or Manipulation During Growth

Search for With Liquid Flow Control Or Manipulation During Growth (e.g., Mixing, Replenishing, Magnetic Levitation, Stabilization, Convection Control, Baffle) Patents and Patent Applications (Class 117/30) Filed with the USPTO Abstract: An method for producing a silicon ingot includes melting polycrystalline silicon in a crucible enclosed in a vacuum chamber to form a melt, generating a cusped

Wen Hui Ma

Abstract: This work investigates the removal of B in Si by the addition of Zr in the electromagnetic solidification refinement of silicon-aluminum melts. As Zr has a strong affinity for B and can form the thermodynamically stable compound of ZrB 2, the B content of lower-grade Si is expected to be effectively removed by adding a small amount of Zr to the Si-55 at% Al melt.

Problem of attaining constant impurity concentration over ingot

Problem of attaining constant impurity concentration over ingot height Michael A. Gonik1, Florin Baltaretu2 1 Centre for Material Reseaches Photon, Cheska Lipa Str., Aleksandrov, Vladimir Region 601655, Russia 2 Technical University of Civil Engineering of

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